Observation

ProfileDescriptionStatusURL
bmi

FHIR Body Mass Index (BMI) Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/bmi
bodyheight

FHIR Body Height Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/bodyheight
bodytemp

FHIR Body Temperature Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/bodytemp
bodyweight

FHIR Body Weight Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/bodyweight
bp

FHIR Blood Pressure Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/bp
cholesterol

Describes how the lab report is used for a standard Lipid Profile - Cholesterol, Triglyceride and Cholesterol fractions. Uses LOINC codes

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/cholesterol
devicemetricobservation

This profile describes the direct or derived, qualitative or quantitative physiological measurement, setting, or calculation data produced by a medical device or a device component.

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/devicemetricobservation
hdlcholesterol

HDL Cholesterol Result

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/hdlcholesterol
headcircum

FHIR Head Circumference Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/headcircum
heartrate

FHIR Heart Rate Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/heartrate
ldlcholesterol

LDL Cholesterol Result

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ldlcholesterol
Observation

Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject.

activehttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation
observation-genetics

Describes how the observation resource is used to report structured genetic test results

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/observation-genetics
oxygensat

FHIR Oxygen Saturation Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/oxygensat
resprate

FHIR Respiratory Rate Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/resprate
triglyceride

Triglyceride Result

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/triglyceride
vitalsigns

FHIR Vital Signs Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/vitalsigns
vitalspanel

FHIR Vital Signs Panel Profile

drafthttp://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/vitalspanel

Differential, Hybrid and Snapshot tree rendering

Differential View

identifierΣ0..*Identifier
basedOnΣ I0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)
partOfΣ I0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)
statusΣ ?!1..1codeBinding
category0..*CodeableConceptBinding
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
subjectΣ I0..1Reference(Patient | Group | Device | Location)
focusΣ I0..*Reference(Resource)
encounterΣ I0..1Reference(Encounter)
effectiveDateTimedateTime
effectivePeriodPeriod
effectiveTimingTiming
effectiveInstantinstant
issuedΣ0..1instant
performerΣ I0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
note0..*Annotation
bodySite0..1CodeableConcept
method0..1CodeableConcept
specimenI0..1Reference(Specimen)
deviceI0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)
lowI0..1SimpleQuantity
highI0..1SimpleQuantity
type0..1CodeableConceptBinding
appliesTo0..*CodeableConcept
ageI0..1Range
text0..1string
hasMemberΣ I0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)
derivedFromΣ I0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
referenceRange0..*see (referenceRange)

Hybrid View

identifierΣ0..*Identifier
basedOnΣ I0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)
partOfΣ I0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)
statusΣ ?!1..1codeBinding
category0..*CodeableConceptBinding
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
subjectΣ I0..1Reference(Patient | Group | Device | Location)
focusΣ I0..*Reference(Resource)
encounterΣ I0..1Reference(Encounter)
effectiveDateTimedateTime
effectivePeriodPeriod
effectiveTimingTiming
effectiveInstantinstant
issuedΣ0..1instant
performerΣ I0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
note0..*Annotation
bodySite0..1CodeableConcept
method0..1CodeableConcept
specimenI0..1Reference(Specimen)
deviceI0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)
lowI0..1SimpleQuantity
highI0..1SimpleQuantity
type0..1CodeableConceptBinding
appliesTo0..*CodeableConcept
ageI0..1Range
text0..1string
hasMemberΣ I0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)
derivedFromΣ I0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
referenceRange0..*see (referenceRange)

Snapshot View

identifierΣ0..*Identifier
basedOnΣ I0..*Reference(CarePlan | DeviceRequest | ImmunizationRecommendation | MedicationRequest | NutritionOrder | ServiceRequest)
partOfΣ I0..*Reference(MedicationAdministration | MedicationDispense | MedicationStatement | Procedure | Immunization | ImagingStudy)
statusΣ ?!1..1codeBinding
category0..*CodeableConceptBinding
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
subjectΣ I0..1Reference(Patient | Group | Device | Location)
focusΣ I0..*Reference(Resource)
encounterΣ I0..1Reference(Encounter)
effectiveDateTimedateTime
effectivePeriodPeriod
effectiveTimingTiming
effectiveInstantinstant
issuedΣ0..1instant
performerΣ I0..*Reference(Practitioner | PractitionerRole | Organization | CareTeam | Patient | RelatedPerson)
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
note0..*Annotation
bodySite0..1CodeableConcept
method0..1CodeableConcept
specimenI0..1Reference(Specimen)
deviceI0..1Reference(Device | DeviceMetric)
lowI0..1SimpleQuantity
highI0..1SimpleQuantity
type0..1CodeableConceptBinding
appliesTo0..*CodeableConcept
ageI0..1Range
text0..1string
hasMemberΣ I0..*Reference(Observation | QuestionnaireResponse | MolecularSequence)
derivedFromΣ I0..*Reference(DocumentReference | ImagingStudy | Media | QuestionnaireResponse | Observation | MolecularSequence)
codeΣ1..1CodeableConcept
valueQuantityQuantity
valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
valueStringstring
valueBooleanboolean
valueIntegerinteger
valueRangeRange
valueRatioRatio
valueSampledDataSampledData
valueTimetime
valueDateTimedateTime
valuePeriodPeriod
dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptBinding
interpretation0..*CodeableConceptBinding
referenceRange0..*see (referenceRange)

XML rendering

<StructureDefinition xmlns="http://hl7.org/fhir">
    <id value="Observation" />
    <meta>
        <lastUpdated value="2019-11-01T09:29:23.356+11:00" />
    </meta>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-category">
        <valueString value="Clinical.Diagnostics" />
    </extension>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-standards-status">
        <valueCode value="normative" />
    </extension>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-normative-version">
        <valueCode value="4.0.0" />
    </extension>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-fmm">
        <valueInteger value="5" />
    </extension>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-security-category">
        <valueCode value="patient" />
    </extension>
    <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-wg">
        <valueCode value="oo" />
    </extension>
    <url value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Observation" />
    <version value="4.0.1" />
    <name value="Observation" />
    <status value="active" />
    <date value="2019-11-01T09:29:23+11:00" />
    <publisher value="Health Level Seven International (Orders and Observations)" />
    <contact>
        <telecom>
            <system value="url" />
            <value value="http://hl7.org/fhir" />
        </telecom>
    </contact>
    <contact>
        <telecom>
            <system value="url" />
            <value value="http://www.hl7.org/Special/committees/orders/index.cfm" />
        </telecom>
    </contact>
    <description value="Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject." />
    <purpose value="Observations are a key aspect of healthcare.  This resource is used to capture those that do not require more sophisticated mechanisms." />
    <fhirVersion value="4.0.1" />
    <mapping>
        <identity value="workflow" />
        <uri value="http://hl7.org/fhir/workflow" />
        <name value="Workflow Pattern" />
    </mapping>
    <mapping>
        <identity value="sct-concept" />
        <uri value="http://snomed.info/conceptdomain" />
        <name value="SNOMED CT Concept Domain Binding" />
    </mapping>
    <mapping>
        <identity value="v2" />
        <uri value="http://hl7.org/v2" />
        <name value="HL7 v2 Mapping" />
    </mapping>
    <mapping>
        <identity value="rim" />
        <uri value="http://hl7.org/v3" />
        <name value="RIM Mapping" />
    </mapping>
    <mapping>
        <identity value="w5" />
        <uri value="http://hl7.org/fhir/fivews" />
        <name value="FiveWs Pattern Mapping" />
    </mapping>
    <mapping>
        <identity value="sct-attr" />
        <uri value="http://snomed.org/attributebinding" />
        <name value="SNOMED CT Attribute Binding" />
    </mapping>
    <kind value="resource" />
    <abstract value="false" />
    <type value="Observation" />
    <baseDefinition value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
    <derivation value="specialization" />
    <snapshot>
        <element id="Observation">
            <path value="Observation" />
            <short value="Measurements and simple assertions" />
            <definition value="Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject." />
            <comment value="Used for simple observations such as device measurements, laboratory atomic results, vital signs, height, weight, smoking status, comments, etc.  Other resources are used to provide context for observations such as laboratory reports, etc." />
            <alias value="Vital Signs" />
            <alias value="Measurement" />
            <alias value="Results" />
            <alias value="Tests" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <constraint>
                <key value="dom-2" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT contain nested Resources" />
                <expression value="contained.contained.empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(parent::f:contained and f:contained)" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="dom-3" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="If the resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL be referred to from elsewhere in the resource or SHALL refer to the containing resource" />
                <expression value="contained.where(((&#39;#&#39;+id in (%resource.descendants().reference | %resource.descendants().as(canonical) | %resource.descendants().as(uri) | %resource.descendants().as(url))) or descendants().where(reference = &#39;#&#39;).exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = &#39;#&#39;).exists() or descendants().where(as(canonical) = &#39;#&#39;).exists()).not()).trace(&#39;unmatched&#39;, id).empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(exists(for $id in f:contained/*/f:id/@value return $contained[not(parent::*/descendant::f:reference/@value=concat(&#39;#&#39;, $contained/*/id/@value) or descendant::f:reference[@value=&#39;#&#39;])]))" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="dom-4" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="If a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a meta.versionId or a meta.lastUpdated" />
                <expression value="contained.meta.versionId.empty() and contained.meta.lastUpdated.empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(exists(f:contained/*/f:meta/f:versionId)) and not(exists(f:contained/*/f:meta/f:lastUpdated))" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="dom-5" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="If a resource is contained in another resource, it SHALL NOT have a security label" />
                <expression value="contained.meta.security.empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(exists(f:contained/*/f:meta/f:security))" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bestpractice">
                    <valueBoolean value="true" />
                </extension>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bestpractice-explanation">
                    <valueMarkdown value="When a resource has no narrative, only systems that fully understand the data can display the resource to a human safely. Including a human readable representation in the resource makes for a much more robust eco-system and cheaper handling of resources by intermediary systems. Some ecosystems restrict distribution of resources to only those systems that do fully understand the resources, and as a consequence implementers may believe that the narrative is superfluous. However experience shows that such eco-systems often open up to new participants over time." />
                </extension>
                <key value="dom-6" />
                <severity value="warning" />
                <human value="A resource should have narrative for robust management" />
                <expression value="text.`div`.exists()" />
                <xpath value="exists(f:text/h:div)" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DomainResource" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="obs-6" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="dataAbsentReason SHALL only be present if Observation.value[x] is not present" />
                <expression value="dataAbsentReason.empty() or value.empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(exists(f:dataAbsentReason)) or (not(exists(*[starts-with(local-name(.), &#39;value&#39;)])))" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="obs-7" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="If Observation.code is the same as an Observation.component.code then the value element associated with the code SHALL NOT be present" />
                <expression value="value.empty() or component.code.where(coding.intersect(%resource.code.coding).exists()).empty()" />
                <xpath value="not(f:*[starts-with(local-name(.), &#39;value&#39;)] and (for $coding in f:code/f:coding return f:component/f:code/f:coding[f:code/@value=$coding/f:code/@value] [f:system/@value=$coding/f:system/@value]))" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="Entity. Role, or Act" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 363787002 |Observable entity|" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="Observation[classCode=OBS, moodCode=EVN]" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.id">
            <path value="Observation.id" />
            <short value="Logical id of this artifact" />
            <definition value="The logical id of the resource, as used in the URL for the resource. Once assigned, this value never changes." />
            <comment value="The only time that a resource does not have an id is when it is being submitted to the server using a create operation." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Resource.id" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-fhir-type">
                    <valueUrl value="string" />
                </extension>
                <code value="http://hl7.org/fhirpath/System.String" />
            </type>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.meta">
            <path value="Observation.meta" />
            <short value="Metadata about the resource" />
            <definition value="The metadata about the resource. This is content that is maintained by the infrastructure. Changes to the content might not always be associated with version changes to the resource." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Resource.meta" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Meta" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.implicitRules">
            <path value="Observation.implicitRules" />
            <short value="A set of rules under which this content was created" />
            <definition value="A reference to a set of rules that were followed when the resource was constructed, and which must be understood when processing the content. Often, this is a reference to an implementation guide that defines the special rules along with other profiles etc." />
            <comment value="Asserting this rule set restricts the content to be only understood by a limited set of trading partners. This inherently limits the usefulness of the data in the long term. However, the existing health eco-system is highly fractured, and not yet ready to define, collect, and exchange data in a generally computable sense. Wherever possible, implementers and/or specification writers should avoid using this element. Often, when used, the URL is a reference to an implementation guide that defines these special rules as part of it&#39;s narrative along with other profiles, value sets, etc." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Resource.implicitRules" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="uri" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="true" />
            <isModifierReason value="This element is labeled as a modifier because the implicit rules may provide additional knowledge about the resource that modifies it&#39;s meaning or interpretation" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.language">
            <path value="Observation.language" />
            <short value="Language of the resource content" />
            <definition value="The base language in which the resource is written." />
            <comment value="Language is provided to support indexing and accessibility (typically, services such as text to speech use the language tag). The html language tag in the narrative applies  to the narrative. The language tag on the resource may be used to specify the language of other presentations generated from the data in the resource. Not all the content has to be in the base language. The Resource.language should not be assumed to apply to the narrative automatically. If a language is specified, it should it also be specified on the div element in the html (see rules in HTML5 for information about the relationship between xml:lang and the html lang attribute)." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Resource.language" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="code" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-maxValueSet">
                    <valueCanonical value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/all-languages" />
                </extension>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="Language" />
                </extension>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-isCommonBinding">
                    <valueBoolean value="true" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="preferred" />
                <description value="A human language." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/languages" />
            </binding>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.text">
            <path value="Observation.text" />
            <short value="Text summary of the resource, for human interpretation" />
            <definition value="A human-readable narrative that contains a summary of the resource and can be used to represent the content of the resource to a human. The narrative need not encode all the structured data, but is required to contain sufficient detail to make it &quot;clinically safe&quot; for a human to just read the narrative. Resource definitions may define what content should be represented in the narrative to ensure clinical safety." />
            <comment value="Contained resources do not have narrative. Resources that are not contained SHOULD have a narrative. In some cases, a resource may only have text with little or no additional discrete data (as long as all minOccurs=1 elements are satisfied).  This may be necessary for data from legacy systems where information is captured as a &quot;text blob&quot; or where text is additionally entered raw or narrated and encoded information is added later." />
            <alias value="narrative" />
            <alias value="html" />
            <alias value="xhtml" />
            <alias value="display" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="DomainResource.text" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Narrative" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="Act.text?" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.contained">
            <path value="Observation.contained" />
            <short value="Contained, inline Resources" />
            <definition value="These resources do not have an independent existence apart from the resource that contains them - they cannot be identified independently, and nor can they have their own independent transaction scope." />
            <comment value="This should never be done when the content can be identified properly, as once identification is lost, it is extremely difficult (and context dependent) to restore it again. Contained resources may have profiles and tags In their meta elements, but SHALL NOT have security labels." />
            <alias value="inline resources" />
            <alias value="anonymous resources" />
            <alias value="contained resources" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="DomainResource.contained" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Resource" />
            </type>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="N/A" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.extension">
            <path value="Observation.extension" />
            <short value="Additional content defined by implementations" />
            <definition value="May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance  applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension." />
            <comment value="There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone." />
            <alias value="extensions" />
            <alias value="user content" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="DomainResource.extension" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Extension" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ext-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="Must have either extensions or value[x], not both" />
                <expression value="extension.exists() != value.exists()" />
                <xpath value="exists(f:extension)!=exists(f:*[starts-with(local-name(.), &quot;value&quot;)])" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Extension" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="N/A" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.modifierExtension">
            <path value="Observation.modifierExtension" />
            <short value="Extensions that cannot be ignored" />
            <definition value="May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it and/or the understanding of the containing element&#39;s descendants. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions.\n\nModifier extensions SHALL NOT change the meaning of any elements on Resource or DomainResource (including cannot change the meaning of modifierExtension itself)." />
            <comment value="There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions.  The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone." />
            <requirements value="Modifier extensions allow for extensions that *cannot* be safely ignored to be clearly distinguished from the vast majority of extensions which can be safely ignored.  This promotes interoperability by eliminating the need for implementers to prohibit the presence of extensions. For further information, see the [definition of modifier extensions](extensibility.html#modifierExtension)." />
            <alias value="extensions" />
            <alias value="user content" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="DomainResource.modifierExtension" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Extension" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ext-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="Must have either extensions or value[x], not both" />
                <expression value="extension.exists() != value.exists()" />
                <xpath value="exists(f:extension)!=exists(f:*[starts-with(local-name(.), &quot;value&quot;)])" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Extension" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="true" />
            <isModifierReason value="Modifier extensions are expected to modify the meaning or interpretation of the resource that contains them" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="N/A" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.identifier">
            <path value="Observation.identifier" />
            <short value="Business Identifier for observation" />
            <definition value="A unique identifier assigned to this observation." />
            <requirements value="Allows observations to be distinguished and referenced." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.identifier" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Identifier" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.identifier" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.identifier" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX.21  For OBX segments from systems without OBX-21 support a combination of ORC/OBR and OBX must be negotiated between trading partners to uniquely identify the OBX segment. Depending on how V2 has been implemented each of these may be an option: 1) OBR-3 + OBX-3 + OBX-4 or 2) OBR-3 + OBR-4 + OBX-3 + OBX-4 or 2) some other way to uniquely ID the OBR/ORC + OBX-3 + OBX-4." />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="id" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.basedOn">
            <path value="Observation.basedOn" />
            <short value="Fulfills plan, proposal or order" />
            <definition value="A plan, proposal or order that is fulfilled in whole or in part by this event.  For example, a MedicationRequest may require a patient to have laboratory test performed before  it is dispensed." />
            <requirements value="Allows tracing of authorization for the event and tracking whether proposals/recommendations were acted upon." />
            <alias value="Fulfills" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.basedOn" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/CarePlan" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/DeviceRequest" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ImmunizationRecommendation" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/MedicationRequest" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/NutritionOrder" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ServiceRequest" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.basedOn" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="ORC" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value=".inboundRelationship[typeCode=COMP].source[moodCode=EVN]" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.partOf">
            <path value="Observation.partOf" />
            <short value="Part of referenced event" />
            <definition value="A larger event of which this particular Observation is a component or step.  For example,  an observation as part of a procedure." />
            <comment value="To link an Observation to an Encounter use `encounter`.  See the  [Notes](observation.html#obsgrouping) below for guidance on referencing another Observation." />
            <alias value="Container" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.partOf" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/MedicationAdministration" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/MedicationDispense" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/MedicationStatement" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Procedure" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Immunization" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/ImagingStudy" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.partOf" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="Varies by domain" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value=".outboundRelationship[typeCode=FLFS].target" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.status">
            <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-display-hint">
                <valueString value="default: final" />
            </extension>
            <path value="Observation.status" />
            <short value="registered | preliminary | final | amended +" />
            <definition value="The status of the result value." />
            <comment value="This element is labeled as a modifier because the status contains codes that mark the resource as not currently valid." />
            <requirements value="Need to track the status of individual results. Some results are finalized before the whole report is finalized." />
            <min value="1" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.status" />
                <min value="1" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="code" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="true" />
            <isModifierReason value="This element is labeled as a modifier because it is a status element that contains status entered-in-error which means that the resource should not be treated as valid" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="ObservationStatus" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="required" />
                <description value="Codes providing the status of an observation." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-status|4.0.1" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.status" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.status" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 445584004 |Report by finality status|" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX-11" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="status  Amended &amp; Final are differentiated by whether it is the subject of a ControlAct event with a type of &quot;revise&quot;" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.category">
            <path value="Observation.category" />
            <short value="Classification of  type of observation" />
            <definition value="A code that classifies the general type of observation being made." />
            <comment value="In addition to the required category valueset, this element allows various categorization schemes based on the owner’s definition of the category and effectively multiple categories can be used at once.  The level of granularity is defined by the category concepts in the value set." />
            <requirements value="Used for filtering what observations are retrieved and displayed." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.category" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="ObservationCategory" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="preferred" />
                <description value="Codes for high level observation categories." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-category" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.class" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value=".outboundRelationship[typeCode=&quot;COMP].target[classCode=&quot;LIST&quot;, moodCode=&quot;EVN&quot;].code" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.code">
            <path value="Observation.code" />
            <short value="Type of observation (code / type)" />
            <definition value="Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation &quot;name&quot;." />
            <comment value="*All* code-value and, if present, component.code-component.value pairs need to be taken into account to correctly understand the meaning of the observation." />
            <requirements value="Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation." />
            <alias value="Name" />
            <min value="1" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.code" />
                <min value="1" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="ObservationCode" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="example" />
                <description value="Codes identifying names of simple observations." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-codes" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.code" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.what[x]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 363787002 |Observable entity| OR &lt; 386053000 |Evaluation procedure|" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX-3" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="code" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-attr" />
                <map value="116680003 |Is a|" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.subject">
            <path value="Observation.subject" />
            <short value="Who and/or what the observation is about" />
            <definition value="The patient, or group of patients, location, or device this observation is about and into whose record the observation is placed. If the actual focus of the observation is different from the subject (or a sample of, part, or region of the subject), the `focus` element or the `code` itself specifies the actual focus of the observation." />
            <comment value="One would expect this element to be a cardinality of 1..1. The only circumstance in which the subject can be missing is when the observation is made by a device that does not know the patient. In this case, the observation SHALL be matched to a patient through some context/channel matching technique, and at this point, the observation should be updated." />
            <requirements value="Observations have no value if you don&#39;t know who or what they&#39;re about." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.subject" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Patient" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Group" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Device" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Location" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.subject" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.subject[x]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="PID-3" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="participation[typeCode=RTGT]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.subject" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.focus">
            <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/structuredefinition-standards-status">
                <valueCode value="trial-use" />
            </extension>
            <path value="Observation.focus" />
            <short value="What the observation is about, when it is not about the subject of record" />
            <definition value="The actual focus of an observation when it is not the patient of record representing something or someone associated with the patient such as a spouse, parent, fetus, or donor. For example, fetus observations in a mother&#39;s record.  The focus of an observation could also be an existing condition,  an intervention, the subject&#39;s diet,  another observation of the subject,  or a body structure such as tumor or implanted device.   An example use case would be using the Observation resource to capture whether the mother is trained to change her child&#39;s tracheostomy tube. In this example, the child is the patient of record and the mother is the focus." />
            <comment value="Typically, an observation is made about the subject - a patient, or group of patients, location, or device - and the distinction between the subject and what is directly measured for an observation is specified in the observation code itself ( e.g., &quot;Blood Glucose&quot;) and does not need to be represented separately using this element.  Use `specimen` if a reference to a specimen is required.  If a code is required instead of a resource use either  `bodysite` for bodysites or the standard extension [focusCode](extension-observation-focuscode.html)." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.focus" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Resource" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.subject[x]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX-3" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="participation[typeCode=SBJ]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.subject" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.encounter">
            <path value="Observation.encounter" />
            <short value="Healthcare event during which this observation is made" />
            <definition value="The healthcare event  (e.g. a patient and healthcare provider interaction) during which this observation is made." />
            <comment value="This will typically be the encounter the event occurred within, but some events may be initiated prior to or after the official completion of an encounter but still be tied to the context of the encounter (e.g. pre-admission laboratory tests)." />
            <requirements value="For some observations it may be important to know the link between an observation and a particular encounter." />
            <alias value="Context" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.encounter" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Encounter" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.context" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.context" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="PV1" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="inboundRelationship[typeCode=COMP].source[classCode=ENC, moodCode=EVN]" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.effective[x]">
            <path value="Observation.effective[x]" />
            <short value="Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation" />
            <definition value="The time or time-period the observed value is asserted as being true. For biological subjects - e.g. human patients - this is usually called the &quot;physiologically relevant time&quot;. This is usually either the time of the procedure or of specimen collection, but very often the source of the date/time is not known, only the date/time itself." />
            <comment value="At least a date should be present unless this observation is a historical report.  For recording imprecise or &quot;fuzzy&quot; times (For example, a blood glucose measurement taken &quot;after breakfast&quot;) use the [Timing](datatypes.html#timing) datatype which allow the measurement to be tied to regular life events." />
            <requirements value="Knowing when an observation was deemed true is important to its relevance as well as determining trends." />
            <alias value="Occurrence" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.effective[x]" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="dateTime" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="Period" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="Timing" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="instant" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.occurrence[x]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.done[x]" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX-14, and/or OBX-19 after v2.4  (depends on who observation made)" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="effectiveTime" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.issued">
            <path value="Observation.issued" />
            <short value="Date/Time this version was made available" />
            <definition value="The date and time this version of the observation was made available to providers, typically after the results have been reviewed and verified." />
            <comment value="For Observations that don’t require review and verification, it may be the same as the [`lastUpdated` ](resource-definitions.html#Meta.lastUpdated) time of the resource itself.  For Observations that do require review and verification for certain updates, it might not be the same as the `lastUpdated` time of the resource itself due to a non-clinically significant update that doesn’t require the new version to be reviewed and verified again." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.issued" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="instant" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.recorded" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBR.22 (or MSH.7), or perhaps OBX-19 (depends on who observation made)" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="participation[typeCode=AUT].time" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.performer">
            <path value="Observation.performer" />
            <short value="Who is responsible for the observation" />
            <definition value="Who was responsible for asserting the observed value as &quot;true&quot;." />
            <requirements value="May give a degree of confidence in the observation and also indicates where follow-up questions should be directed." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.performer" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Reference" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Practitioner" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/PractitionerRole" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Organization" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/CareTeam" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Patient" />
                <targetProfile value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/RelatedPerson" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="workflow" />
                <map value="Event.performer.actor" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="w5" />
                <map value="FiveWs.actor" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX.15 / (Practitioner)  OBX-16,  PRT-5:PRT-4=&#39;RO&#39; /  (Device)  OBX-18 , PRT-10:PRT-4=&#39;EQUIP&#39; / (Organization)  OBX-23,  PRT-8:PRT-4=&#39;PO&#39;" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="participation[typeCode=PRF]" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.value[x]">
            <path value="Observation.value[x]" />
            <short value="Actual result" />
            <definition value="The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value." />
            <comment value="An observation may have; 1)  a single value here, 2)  both a value and a set of related or component values,  or 3)  only a set of related or component values. If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code.  A CodeableConcept with just a text would be used instead of a string if the field was usually coded, or if the type associated with the Observation.code defines a coded value.  For additional guidance, see the [Notes section](observation.html#notes) below." />
            <requirements value="An observation exists to have a value, though it might not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.value[x]" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Quantity" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="string" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="boolean" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="integer" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="Range" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="Ratio" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="SampledData" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="time" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="dateTime" />
            </type>
            <type>
                <code value="Period" />
            </type>
            <condition value="obs-7" />
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="true" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 441742003 |Evaluation finding|" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX.2, OBX.5, OBX.6" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="value" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-attr" />
                <map value="363714003 |Interprets|" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.dataAbsentReason">
            <path value="Observation.dataAbsentReason" />
            <short value="Why the result is missing" />
            <definition value="Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing." />
            <comment value="Null or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations.  One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value.  For example, measurement values for a serology test could be  &quot;detected&quot;, &quot;not detected&quot;, &quot;inconclusive&quot;, or  &quot;specimen unsatisfactory&quot;.   \n\nThe alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values.  For example, the dataAbsentReason code &quot;error&quot; could be used when the measurement was not completed. Note that an observation may only be reported if there are values to report. For example differential cell counts values may be reported only when &gt; 0.  Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for null or exceptional values." />
            <requirements value="For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.dataAbsentReason" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <condition value="obs-6" />
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="ObservationValueAbsentReason" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="extensible" />
                <description value="Codes specifying why the result (`Observation.value[x]`) is missing." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/data-absent-reason" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="N/A" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="value.nullFlavor" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.interpretation">
            <path value="Observation.interpretation" />
            <short value="High, low, normal, etc." />
            <definition value="A categorical assessment of an observation value.  For example, high, low, normal." />
            <comment value="Historically used for laboratory results (known as &#39;abnormal flag&#39; ),  its use extends to other use cases where coded interpretations  are relevant.  Often reported as one or more simple compact codes this element is often placed adjacent to the result value in reports and flow sheets to signal the meaning/normalcy status of the result." />
            <requirements value="For some results, particularly numeric results, an interpretation is necessary to fully understand the significance of a result." />
            <alias value="Abnormal Flag" />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.interpretation" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="ObservationInterpretation" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="extensible" />
                <description value="Codes identifying interpretations of observations." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/observation-interpretation" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 260245000 |Findings values|" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="OBX-8" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="interpretationCode" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-attr" />
                <map value="363713009 |Has interpretation|" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.note">
            <path value="Observation.note" />
            <short value="Comments about the observation" />
            <definition value="Comments about the observation or the results." />
            <comment value="May include general statements about the observation, or statements about significant, unexpected or unreliable results values, or information about its source when relevant to its interpretation." />
            <requirements value="Need to be able to provide free text additional information." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="*" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.note" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="*" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="Annotation" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <mapping>
                <identity value="v2" />
                <map value="NTE.3 (partner NTE to OBX, or sometimes another (child?) OBX)" />
            </mapping>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="rim" />
                <map value="subjectOf.observationEvent[code=&quot;annotation&quot;].value" />
            </mapping>
        </element>
        <element id="Observation.bodySite">
            <path value="Observation.bodySite" />
            <short value="Observed body part" />
            <definition value="Indicates the site on the subject&#39;s body where the observation was made (i.e. the target site)." />
            <comment value="Only used if not implicit in code found in Observation.code.  In many systems, this may be represented as a related observation instead of an inline component.   \n\nIf the use case requires BodySite to be handled as a separate resource (e.g. to identify and track separately) then use the standard extension[ bodySite](extension-bodysite.html)." />
            <min value="0" />
            <max value="1" />
            <base>
                <path value="Observation.bodySite" />
                <min value="0" />
                <max value="1" />
            </base>
            <type>
                <code value="CodeableConcept" />
            </type>
            <constraint>
                <key value="ele-1" />
                <severity value="error" />
                <human value="All FHIR elements must have a @value or children" />
                <expression value="hasValue() or (children().count() &gt; id.count())" />
                <xpath value="@value|f:*|h:div" />
                <source value="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/Element" />
            </constraint>
            <isModifier value="false" />
            <isSummary value="false" />
            <binding>
                <extension url="http://hl7.org/fhir/StructureDefinition/elementdefinition-bindingName">
                    <valueString value="BodySite" />
                </extension>
                <strength value="example" />
                <description value="Codes describing anatomical locations. May include laterality." />
                <valueSet value="http://hl7.org/fhir/ValueSet/body-site" />
            </binding>
            <mapping>
                <identity value="sct-concept" />
                <map value="&lt; 123037004 |Body structure|" />
            </mapping>